Research Article Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation: Effect of Cranial Electrotherapy

The Effect of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) on Pain Associated with Fibromyalgia

The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004; 8(2)

Cork RC, Wood PB, Ming N, Shepherd C, Eddy J, Price L.


Subjective pain intensity was the primary measured variable in a double-blind crossover study examining the effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on the pain associated with fibromyalgia. Initially, 39 patients were randomly allocated to CES and 35 patients were allocated to a sham group. Measurements taken at baseline and after three weeks included pain intensity, McGill Pain Score, tenderpoint score, profile of mood states, and Oswestry Score.


Three weeks after crossover, measurements were repeated. Significant CES effects were identified, revealing an improvement in pain intensity, McGill Score, tenderpoint score, and profile of mood states (p<0.05). However, no significant effect was observed on Oswestry Score, which is a score identifying functional effects of pain.

This study reveals that CES could play a significant role in the treatment of pain associated with fibromyalgia; however, the long-term effects on disability remain to be studied.

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